Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Mechanical Engineering


Professor M. A. Elbestawi


Increasing demands for high production rates as well as cost reduction have emphasized the potential for the industrial application of hard turning technology during the past few years. Machining instead of grinding hardened steel components reduces the machining sequence, the machining time, and the specific cutting energy. Hard turning is characterized by the generation of high temperatures the formation of saw toothed chips, and the high ratio of thrust to tangential cutting force components. Although a large volume of literature exists on hard turning, the change in machined surface physical properties represents a major challenge. Thus, a better understanding of the cutting mechanism in hard turning is still required. In particular, the chip formation process and the surface integrity of the machined surface are important issues which require further research. In this thesis, a mechanistic model for saw toothed chip formation is presented. This model is based on the concept of crack initiation of the free surface of the workpiece. The model presented explains the mechanism of chip formation. In addition, experimental investigation is conducted in order to study the chip morphology. The effect of process parameters, including edge preparation and tool wear on the chip morphology. The effect of process parameters including edge preparation and tool wear on the chip morphology, is studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The dynamics of chip formation are also investigated. The surface integrity of the machined parts is also investigated. This investigation focusses on residual stresses as well as surface and sub-surface deformation. A three dimensional thermo-elasto-plastic finite element model is developed to predict the machining residual stresses. The effect of flank wear is introduced during the analysis. Although residual stresses have complicated origins and are introduced by many factors, in this model only the thermal and mechanical factors are considered. The finite element analysis demonstrates the significant effect of the heat generated during cutting on the residual stresses. The machined specimens are also examined using x-ray diffraction technique to clarify the effect of different speeds, feeds, and depths of cut as well as different edge preparations on the residual stress distribution beneath the machined surface. A reasonable agreement between the predicted and measured residual stress is obtained. The results obtained demonstrate the possibility of eliminating the existence of high tensile residual stresses in the workpiece surface by selecting the proper cutting conditions. The machined surfaces are examined using SEM to study the effect of indifferent process parameters and edge preparations on the quality of the machined surface. The phenomenon of material side flow is investigated to clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon. The effect of process parameters and edge preparations on sub-surface deformation is also investigated.

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