Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Religious Studies


Stephen Westerholm




This study focuses on the OT citations and major allusions in Luke-Acts, in order to evaluate the conclusion of Traugott Holz (Untersuchungen über die alttestamentlichen Ziate bei Lukas) that Luke was only familiar with the LXX of Minor Prophets, Isaiah and the Psalms, whereas for the Pentateuch and historical books of the OT was dependant on the other sources such as testimonia. In doing so, the study aims to ascertain the extent of Luke's familiarity with the LXX, to ascertain whether Luke's LXX mss may have been Hebraicizing, and to understand how Luke's redactional activity affects the final form citations. The study concludes that Luke demonstrates knowledge of the LXX Pentateuch, but while Luke tends to use to LXX directly, at times he does use sources other than the OT either because he wished to be faithful to a source which he held in high regard, or because the version of the OT material in his source was particularly applicable to the context which he placed the OT reference. The ms of the LXX Minor Prophets which Luke used was likely Hebraicizing, but there is little significant evidence that he was using a Hebraicizing LXX ms for any other OT book. Finally, Lukan redaction is evident in all OT material both in altering the passages in such a way that his christological or apologetic interpretation is embedded in them, and in altering them stylistically (even to the point of summarizing or simply alluding to them) to fit the context of his narrative. The latter is most evident in the references to the Pentateuch which tend to be embedded in the Lukan narrative, and in which there is less material amenable to christological or apologetic interpretation.

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