Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Medical Sciences


Ruth Milner


The current method presently in use for diagnosing male asymptomatic urethral gonococcal carrier is considered unsuitable for screening purposes in Sierra Leone. A search for a reliable, cheap, simple, and unobtrusive method found the first voided urine (FVU) as a specimen for culture to be the most promising. Because of methodologic weaknesses associated with previous evaluation of the FVU and the change in the population to which it would be used, blind adoption of the FVU was considered inappropriate.

A protocol for validating the FVU in Sierra Leone is presented. The major methodologic problems addressed were definition of asymptomatic male urethral gonococcal carrier, the selection of the study population, and quality control in the laboratory.

The finding of a sensitivity of 0.9 or greater for the FVU will be considered valid for the study.

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