Date of Award

Fall 2011

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MSc)




Joseph A. Kim


David Shore



Committee Member

Bruce Milliken


This thesis discusses two experiments that investigated the effective use of text and images in multimedia instruction. Experiment 1 examined efficient methods of multimedia design based on theoretical principles concerning how words and images influence information processing. Computer-based lectures were presented to university students containing visual elements including redundant text, non-redundant text, images, and the speaker’s image. Lectures with redundant text and audio produced poorer comprehension in comparison to lectures with non-redundant text and images. Non-redundant text and images enhanced learning, and accurate assessments of understanding. Experiment 2 implemented a more controlled design using four computer-based lectures with only two variable manipulations: text (redundant vs. non-redundant) and image (present vs. absent). The speaker’s image was removed from the design in Experiment 2 due to its lack of influence on learning in Experiment 1. Redundant text lectures produced the poorest comprehension, but only when images were absent. Contrary to common belief, these experiments demonstrate that redundant text is not an effective visual aid. Additionally, this thesis discusses future research investigating cognitive explanations for text and image effects in multimedia learning.


The best category to describe this thesis is:

Pedagogy and Applieded Cognitive Psychology

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