Date of Award
Master of Science (MSc)
Mathematics and Statistics
In diagnostic accuracy studies, sensitivity and specificity are the most common measures to assess the performance of diagnostic or screening tests. The estimation of these measures can be done using empirical or model-based methods. The primary objective of this thesis is to use both the empirical and the model-based (logistic regression) approach to assess the effects of covariates on the performance of the visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and lugol iodine (VILI) tests using the data from women screened for cervical cancer in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The secondary objectives are: first, to adjust for the false negative and false positive error rates by the two tests through latent class models (LCM), and second, to evaluate the effects of covariates on the agreement between the measurements of the two tests taken by nurse and physician through Kappa statistic.
No particular pattern could be observed in the trend of empirically estimated sensitivity and specificity of the VIA and VILI tests measured by the nurse and by the physician across age and parity categories. From the logistic regression models, both age, parity, and their respective quadratic terms have significant effects on the probability of VIA and VILI tests to detect cervical cancer. However, there is no significant effect of marital status, smoking, and hybrid capture2 (HPV DNA) on the probability of VIA and VILI tests measured by nurse to detect cervical cancer while HPV DNA does in the probability of VIA and VILI tests measured by physician to detect cervical cancer. The trend of the estimated sensitivity of VIA and VILI tests measured by the nurse is not different across age groups but the specificity does vary. The trend of both the sensitivity and specificity of VIA and VILI tests are significantly different across parity groups. The reverse is the case for the sensitivity and specificity of VIA and VILI tests measured by physician across age and parity groups. The false negative and false positive error rates in the sensitivity and specificity of VIA and VILI tests measured by nurse are higher compared to that of physician. With Kappa statistic results, there is almost perfect agreement between the ratings by the nurse and physician for the dichotomized VIA and VILI test outcomes.
In conclusion, there is a significant effects of age, parity and the quadratic term of age on the performance of VIA and VILI tests outcomes measured by nurse. On the VIA and VILI test outcomes measured by physician, age, parity, HPV DNA and quadratic term of age have shown significant effects on the performance of VIA and VILI tests outcomes measured by physician alone.
Raifu, Amidu O., "EFFECTS OF COVARIATES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING TESTS: LOGISTIC REGRESSION AND LATENT CLASS MODELS" (2011). Open Access Dissertations and Theses. Paper 6113.
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