Date of Award

Fall 2012

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Applied Science (MASc)


Electrical and Computer Engineering


Wei-Ping Huang


Xun Li



Committee Member

Shiva Kumar


Optical waveguide is a very important component in numerous optical structures, devices and photonic circuits. With the rapid development of fabrication technologies, increasing integrated complexity and different materials characteristics, there is higher demand on high-index contrast waveguide with arbitrary cross section and anisotropic material, which indicates the need to develop an efficient, high-performance mode solver to analyze optical waveguides to reduce the fabrication cycle and total cost. Modeling and simulation methods, including Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method, Finite Element Method (FEM), Beam Propagating Method (BPM), Mode Matching Method (MMM) and Couple Mode Theory (CMT), etc, have been popular for years. Among those methods, FEM is a good and efficient method, especially for its superiority on arbitrary meshes.

In this thesis, both scalar and vectorial FEM mode solvers are implemented with an emphasis on dealing with the radiation and evanescent modes by enclosing the whole region with the Perfect Matched Layer (PML) and Perfect Reflecting Boundary (PRB). Thus, the unbounded and continuous radiation modes together with evanescent modes are replaced by what we called "complex modes", but still keeping the completeness and orthogonality properties.

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